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Sep 3, 2012

Rais Ali Delvari (Martyred on 4 September 1915)

Rais Ali Delvari was an Islamic Mujahid now remembered as the national hero of Iran, who organized popular resistance against the British troops, which had invaded Iran in 1915.
His house, located in Delvar, near Bushehr, has been transformed into ethnological museum. Some of Rais Ali Delvari's personal items, as well as historic documents of his time, various types of guns and horse caparisoning are exhibited in this museum.
In World War I, Iran was neutral . In reality, Persian forces were affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and took sides based on the conditions. Western interest in Persia was based on its significant oil reserve and its strategic situation between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. Persia was divided into northern and southern spheres of influence under the Anglo-Russian Treaty of 1907. The treaty defined their respective spheres of influence in Iran and Afghanistan and provided a counterweight to German influence.This treaty was widely viewed by Iranians as having made the nation into nothing more than a British and Russian protectorate, so during the World War I, many local rebellions occurred in Iran against the British and Russian forces participating in war against Central powers of World War I.In Northern Iran, Jangal movement of Gilan, was the main operating local force against the British and Russians forces, and in Southern Iran, Qashqai, Tangistani and Laristani tribes were the main resisting power against the British empire. In both Southern and Northern movements, Persian Central Government Gendarmerie supported the rebels (See Persian Campaign ).
During first years of WWI, Rais Ali and Wassmuss were busy formulating a general Anti-British uprising in Persia. In 12th July 1915, Rais Ali and Tangestani's attacked the British residency in Bushehr but they were relapsed . On 8 August 1915 the British forces occupied Bushehr with five hundred more Anglo-Indian cavalrymen and on 14 September removed Mokhber-al-Saltana from Shiraz and installed Habib-Allah Qawām-al-Molk as acting governor of Fars Province. Between August and October 1915, Qawām-al-Molk received financial support from the British . But in late December the British protégé was expelled from Shiraz by pro-German officers of gendarmerie and the radical Democrat Party members who occupied the city and confiscated the British assets. Five days later British ships bombarded the headquarters of the Tangestanis tribal at Dilbar ; and on 3 and 9 September the Anglo-Indians repulsed during bloody clashes several Tangistani raids, in this clashes, Rais Ali was killed .Then the Britishs used pro-British tribes to scatter the enemy into the hinterland.At the end, local tribal leaders murdered the British vice consul (a Persian) in Shiraz.In 26 June 1916 an anti-British uprising broke out in Shiraz, but was put down the next day. The fragile British control over Fārs was disrupted in May 1918 when Ṣawlat-al-Dawla, leading the Qashqais and other pro-German tribal forces from Kazerun, Dashti, Dashtestan and Tangestan, embarked upon a war against the British. Eventually, Ṣawlat-al-Dawla’s uprising subsided due to the spread of influenza and British pressure. In late 1920 Mohammad Mossadegh, the new governor-general of Fārs, reinstated Ṣawlat-al-Dawla to the office of īlḵānī. The South Persia Rifles ended its activities following the British supported coup d’état of 1921, which was followed by the formation of a modern army in Persia and the eventual suppression of tribal rebels.
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Item Reviewed: Rais Ali Delvari (Martyred on 4 September 1915) Description: Rais Ali Delvari was an Islamic rebel now remembered as the national hero of Iran, who organized popular resistance against the British troops, which had invaded Iran in 1915. His house, located in Delvar, near Bushehr, has been transformed into ethnological museum. Some of Rais Ali Delvari's personal items, as well as historic documents of his time, various types of guns and horse caparisoning are exhibited in this museum. In World War I, Iran was neutral . In reality, Persian forces were affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers and took sides based on the conditions. Western interest in Persia was based on its significant oil reserve and its strategic situation between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. Persia was divided into northern and southern spheres of influence under the Anglo-Russian Treaty of 1907. The treaty defined their respective spheres of influence in Iran and Afghanistan and provided a counterweight to German influence.This treaty was widely viewed by Iranians as having made the nation into nothing more than a British and Russian protectorate, so during the World War I, many local rebellions occurred in Iran against the British and Russian forces participating in war against Central powers of World War I.In Northern Iran, Jangal movement of Gilan, was the main operating local force against the British and Russians forces, and in Southern Iran, Qashqai, Tangistani and Laristani tribes were the main resisting power against the British empire. In both Southern and Northern movements, Persian Central Government Gendarmerie supported the rebels (See Persian Campaign ). During first years of WWI, Rais Ali and Wassmuss were busy formulating a general Anti-British uprising in Persia. In 12th July 1915, Rais Ali and Tangestani's attacked the British residency in Bushehr but they were relapsed . On 8 August 1915 the British forces occupied Bushehr with five hundred more Anglo-Indian cavalrymen and on 14 September removed Mokhber-al-Saltana from Shiraz and installed Habib-Allah Qawām-al-Molk as acting governor of Fars Province. Between August and October 1915, Qawām-al-Molk received financial support from the British . But in late December the British protégé was expelled from Shiraz by pro-German officers of gendarmerie and the radical Democrat Party members who occupied the city and confiscated the British assets. Five days later British ships bombarded the headquarters of the Tangestanis tribal at Dilbar ; and on 3 and 9 September the Anglo-Indians repulsed during bloody clashes several Tangistani raids, in this clashes, Rais Ali was killed .Then the Britishs used pro-British tribes to scatter the enemy into the hinterland.At the end, local tribal leaders murdered the British vice consul (a Persian) in Shiraz.In 26 June 1916 an anti-British uprising broke out in Shiraz, but was put down the next day. The fragile British control over Fārs was disrupted in May 1918 when Ṣawlat-al-Dawla, leading the Qashqais and other pro-German tribal forces from Kazerun, Dashti, Dashtestan and Tangestan, embarked upon a war against the British. Eventually, Ṣawlat-al-Dawla’s uprising subsided due to the spread of influenza and British pressure. In late 1920 Mohammad Mossadegh, the new governor-general of Fārs, reinstated Ṣawlat-al-Dawla to the office of īlḵānī. The South Persia Rifles ended its activities following the British supported coup d’état of 1921, which was followed by the formation of a modern army in Persia and the eventual suppression of tribal rebels. Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Unknown
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